What is Representations (Reps) and Warranties Insurance?

Reps and warranties insurance is a type of insurance policy that is used in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) transactions to protect both the buyer and the seller against financial losses that may arise from any breach of representations or warranties made by the seller in the M&A agreement.

In an M&A transaction, the seller makes certain representations and warranties about the company being sold, including its financial condition, assets, liabilities, and legal compliance. If any of these representations or warranties turn out to be false or misleading, the buyer may incur financial losses as a result. Reps and warranties insurance is designed to protect against these losses.

The insurance policy is typically purchased by the buyer, although in some cases, the seller may also contribute to the cost. If a breach of a representation or warranty covered by the policy is discovered, the buyer can make a claim under the policy to recover any financial losses incurred as a result. The insurance policy typically covers a specific period of time after the closing of the transaction.

Reps and warranties insurance can be beneficial to both buyers and sellers in an M&A transaction. For the buyer, it provides additional protection against financial losses, which can make the transaction more attractive. For the seller, it can help to facilitate the sale by reducing the risk for the buyer, which can lead to a faster and smoother transaction.

What are Indemnity Clauses?

Indemnities are another mechanism commonly used in M&A transactions to allocate risks between the buyer and the seller. An indemnity is a contractual obligation by one party to compensate the other party for certain types of losses or liabilities that may arise from the transaction.

In an M&A transaction, indemnities are often used to address specific risks or liabilities that are not covered by the representations and warranties made by the seller. For example, the buyer may require the seller to provide an indemnity for any environmental liabilities associated with the company being sold, or for any outstanding tax liabilities.

Reps and Warranties Insurance & Indemnities in M&A

Indemnities and reps and warranties insurance are complementary tools that can work together to provide comprehensive protection for both the buyer and the seller in an M&A transaction. While reps and warranties insurance can provide broad protection against losses resulting from breaches of representations and warranties made by the seller, indemnities can be used to cover specific risks or liabilities that may not be covered by the insurance policy.

In practice, the use of indemnities and reps and warranties insurance can be complex and require careful negotiation and drafting of the M&A agreement. It is important for both the buyer and the seller to work closely with their legal and financial advisors to ensure that the terms of the agreement adequately address all relevant risks and liabilities associated with the transaction.


Amy is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA), having worked in the accounting industry for 14 years. She is a seasoned finance executive having held various positions both in public accounting and most recently as the Chief Financial Officer of a large manufacturing company based out of Michigan.